Diseases and Conditions

Acne - Acne is a skin condition that occurs when your hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells. Acne most commonly appears on your face, neck, chest, back and shoulders. Acne can be distressing and annoyingly persistent. Acne lesions heal slowly, and when one begins to resolve, others seem to crop up.

Depending on its severity, acne can cause emotional distress and lead to scarring of the skin. The good news is that effective treatments are available — and the earlier treatment is started, the lower your risk of lasting physical and emotional damage.

Symptoms - Acne typically appears on your face, neck, chest, back and shoulders, which are the areas of your skin with the largest number of functional oil glands.

Asthma - Asthma is a condition in which your airways narrow and swell and produce extra mucus. This can make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.

Asthma can't be cured, but its symptoms can be controlled. Because asthma often changes over time, it's important that you work with your doctor to track your signs and symptoms and adjust treatment as needed.


  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness or pain
  • Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing
  • A whistling or wheezing sound when exhaling (wheezing is a common sign of asthma in children)
  • Coughing or wheezing attacks that are worsened by a respiratory virus, such as a cold or the flu

Breast cancer - Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts. There are numerous types of breast cancer, but cancer that begins in the milk ducts (ductal carcinoma) is the most common type.

After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it's far more common in women.


  • A breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue
  • Bloody discharge from the nipple
  • Change in the size or shape of a breast
  • Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling
  • Redness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange

Dengue fever - Dengue (DENG-gay) fever is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mild dengue fever causes high fever, rash, and muscle and joint pain. A severe form of dengue fever, also called dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause severe bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) and death.

Millions of cases of dengue infection occur worldwide each year. Dengue fever is most common in Southeast Asia and the western Pacific islands, but the disease has been increasing rapidly in Latin America and the Caribbean.


  • Fever, up to 106 F (41 C)
  • Headaches
  • Muscle, bone and joint pain
  • Pain behind your eyes

Heart attack

- A heart attack usually occurs when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood through a coronary artery — a blood vessel that feeds blood to a part of the heart muscle. Interrupted blood flow to your heart can damage or destroy a part of the heart muscle.

A heart attack, also called a myocardial infarction, can be fatal. This is often because people confuse their symptoms with a minor illness, like indigestion, and delay going to the hospital. They try to tough out their symptoms and receive treatment too late. Treatment for heart attack has improved dramatically over the years. It is crucial to promptly recognize symptoms and call 911 or emergency medical help if you think you might be having a heart attack.


  • Pressure, a feeling of fullness or a squeezing pain in the center of your chest that lasts for more than a few minutes
  • Pain extending beyond your chest to your shoulder, arm, back, or even to your teeth and jaw
  • Increasing episodes of chest pain
  • Prolonged pain in the upper abdomen
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Impending sense of doom
  • Fainting

Causes of Diseases

Trying to research the formation process of many diseases doesn't require as much time as we might think. Even though every person's body is as unique as our fingerprints, the general outline of disease process is roughly the same. In simple terms, every health problem, from a simple rush or allergy to cancer on one of our organs, is a disorder of the whole body. Whatever name we give it, its cause is the accumulation of toxins. Abbot, an American doctor, published a study before the Second World War in which he tied the origin of some diseases to changes in the spine. (See "An ill spine means an ill body" at page 16 of "Can We Live 150 Years?") Various body movements can often cause minute dislocations of vertebrae; the muscles around a dislocated vertebra stiffen up and prevent it from moving back to its proper position. This results in progressive nerve and muscle inflammation, causing pain and limiting our range of motion.

From outside with food, air, water, medications

Undigested food forms deposits in the large intestine and becomes breeding ground for toxin-producing bacteria. Toxins are absorbed by intestinal walls and blood carries them to all our organs, where they cause diseases. To make the point, I'll use a drastic example of experiments done by the Nazis during the Second World War. They took the contents of the large intestine from prisoners suffering from chronic constipation, made serum from it, and injected healthy prisoners with it. Depending on the amount of serum, the injections resulted in psychological disorders, burst blood vessels, and strokes.

Professor Zepp of Moscow University wrote at the beginning of the twentieth century an interesting book that was never published, like many other works written by Russian doctors. He found out in his experiments that stroke is caused by ear inflammation, which in turn is a result of throat inflammation. The throat gets ill because the kidneys don't function properly. Kidneys malfunction because people use bedding that is to warm and wear warm air tight clothing. Kidney disease distorts skin breathing and other skin function. Poor functioning of skin and kidneys leads to liver disease, and these are followed by irregularities in circulatory and digestive systems. Resulting constipation causes autotoxication (self­poisoning) in the body, accompanied by headaches. Blood vessels in the brain expand and are ready to burst. When a blood vessel bursts (micro­stroke), the damage done in the brain can affect all bodily systems and can result in psychosis, schizophrenia, dementia, hearing impairment, vision disorders, large intestine disorders, gallbladder and kidney stones, rheumatism, etc.

Produced in our body as a result of its own life processes

At about the same time in another part of the world, Japanese professor Nishi noticed that 99% of people that die of various diseases have micro­strokes in those sections of the brain that direct the movement of limbs. This led him to an explanation for the phenomenon of cold hands and feet. People with constantly cold hands and feet suffer from disorders in the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys. Their lungs and liver are also inefficient, and all this is caused by frequent constipation.

When food isn't fully digested and absorbed, undigested pieces decompose in the large intestine. One of the products is carbon monoxide. It binds with hemoglobin to produce a toxic compound, which accumulates and causes damage to our body, especially the circulatory system. Nishi concluded that brain and large intestine are the most important organs in the body.

Life processes of bacteria

A dislocated vertebra creates pressure on nerves and blood vessels that are connected with specific muscles and organs. If a nerve remains under pressure for a long time, the organ depending on that nerve develops pathologies that are hard to cure. The following health problems are associated with dislocations in corresponding spinal sections:

Cervical ­ Allergies, loss of hearing, sight problems, eczema, throat problems, thyroid gland disorders; Thoracic ­ Asthma, pain in the lower arms, back pains, gall bladder disorders, liver problems, stomach and duodenum ulcers, kidney diseases, skin disorders (acne, rashes, eczema, boils);

Lumbar ­ Hemorrhoids, bladder disorders, irregular menstrual cycle, menstrual pains, impotence, knee pain, lumbago, lumbar pain, poor blood circulation in the legs, ankle swelling, cold feet, weak legs, muscular cramps in the legs.

Mechanisms Of Human Health And Disease

Established in 2006, Mechanisms is a fast­paced, in­depth program designed to challenge the serious science student who is interested in medicine or medical research. Students in the Mechanisms program investigate cancer and other disease topics with lectures from research experts. At the final class, students present their research paper to family, teachers and researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. This course is lecture and activity based, there is no lab component.


Introduce motivated and high­achieving high school science students to college level curriculum for medical and biomedical research careers.


At the end of the program, the students are able to:

  • Explore career options in medicine and biomedical research through career speakers.
  • Discuss college level content in biology, chemistry, cellular and molecular biology, genetic and genetic engineering, physical and medicinal chemistry, immunology, virology, biomedical information and pathophysiology.
  • Enhance skills to gain a competitive edge including networking, college selection, resumes, job applications, learning style and business communications.
  • Complete an independent project in molecular pathophysiology.
  • Complete an apprenticeship group project for a selected career path.


Class is designed for incoming seniors currently enrolled in 11th grade. Other students who meet the prerequisites will be considered. The average GPA of students accepted into the program is over 4.0.


High school biology and chemistry.

Class Size:

We will accept up to 30 qualified candidates into the summer 2014 class.

Attendance and Commitment:

  • Students must attend and participate in all class and group project sessions.
  • Students spend an average of 10­15 hours each week on readings, research and papers outside of class.
  • Students will be required to read two books. One must be completed before class begins.

In a survey given to participants 83% reported Mechanisms was the most challenging experience in their academic career.

Human Body Diseases

Human body diseases vary in both severity and diversity. Any body part or function can contract a disease or have a disorder. We are more capable today than ever before of combating these diseases and medicine is advancing every day.

Below are articles on diseases and disorders:

Skin Disorders

The skin is susceptible to physical injury and to infection by bacteria, virus, fungi, and exposure to sunlight. Rashes can be caused by allergic reactions and some skin disorders are hereditary.

Nervous System Disorders

Damage to the nervous system through physical injury or disease can impair both physical and mental function. The nervous system can be affected by infections, injury, tumors, and degenerative conditions.

Cardiovascular Disorders

Common heart diseases include structural defects, damage due to restricted blood supply, heart muscle disorders and viral infections. What we eat and the amount of exercise we get can affect our cardiovascular system.

Infections and Immune Disorders

Our bodies can be infected by bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Our immune systems work to combat these viruses. Our immune systems can also develop disorders and there are two types of immune system disorder; allergies and autoimmune diseases where the immune system over reacts and immunodefficiency diseases where it underacts and is too weak to cope with a threat.

Digestive Disorders

Problems with our digestive systems occur frequently mainly due to the food we consume. Viral infections and cancer can also affect our digestive systems.

Control of communicable diseases and prevention of epidemics

The importance of communicable diseases in emergencies and disaste The five most common causes of death in emergencies and disaster s are diarrhoea, acuterespiratory infection, measles, malnutrition and, in endemic zo nes, malaria. All exceptmalnutrition are communicable diseases directly related to environmental health conditions, and even malnutrition is greatly exacerbated by communicable disease. Disaster­affected people are particularly vulnerable to communicable diseases when the disaster and its immediate consequences reduce resistance to disease because of malnutrition, stress, fatigue, etc. and when post­disaster living conditions are unsanitary.

The control of communicable diseases

The control of communicable diseases depends on a healthy environment (cleanwater, adequate sanitation, vector control, shelter), immunization, and health workerstrained in early diagnosis and treatment. Thanks to effective environmental health measures, epidemics following disasters are no longer common. Exceptions are the epidemics occurring in chronic emergencies triggered by drought and civil strife, such as those that occurred in Africa in the 1980s and 1990s, and the epidemics of communicable diseases that have swept refugee camps in Africa and other parts of the world. Functioning disease surveillance systems and intact environmental health services are crucialin protecting public health and in responding to these outbreaks when they occur intimes of disaster.

The conditions leading to an epidemic

The conditions leading to an epidemic are caused mostly by secondary effects andnot by the primary hazard, except in the case of flooding, which can cause an increase in waterborne and vector­borne diseases (see Box 11.1). Other hazards may leave standing water or pollute, or interrupt drinking­water supplies. High winds, coastal storms,mud slides and even earthquakes can all result in standing water, especially where a“cascade” of physical effects occurs. For instance, in the Andes it is not uncommon fora volcanic eruption to melt ice and snow, creating floods, mud flows and rock falls. Earthquakes can trigger landslides that block rivers, causing flooding. In all these cases, excess standing water can promote the breeding of insect disease vectors, or contaminate water supplies with waste or sewage Both natural disasters and armed conflict may result in the breakage of water mainsor the interruption of electricity supplies required to pump water. Sewer pipes and sewage treatment works may also be broken or rendered inoperable.

Besides waterborne and vector­borne disease

Besides waterborne and vector­borne disease, there may also be major epidemics of highly contagious diseases—those spread by personal contact. These are most commonly the result of crowding survivors living in crowded temporary accommodation withoutadequate ventilation or adequate facilities for personal hygiene and laundry.The length of time that people spend in temporary settlements is an important determinant of the risk of disease transmission. The prolonged masssettlement of refugeesin temporary shelters with only minimal provision for essentialpersonal hygiene is typical of a situation that may cause epidemic outbreaks of infectiousdiseases (see Box 11.2).Camps established to provide food relief during famine are a special case, as largenumbers of people who are already weak and possibly ill are likely to remain in suchcamps for a long time

How to Control Diseases in Healthy Aging

How you can help you live through healthy aging:The first thing you have to do is to accept thefact that you are sick. This can be hard for you but if you are mentally able, you have to do this.Once you accepted it is easier to move ahead and take the next step. Acceptance will help you to better understand your disease. Remember, you are not the disease; the illnesses is something thatis reducing your abilities to function healthy in life. Still, you can function healthy by takingnecessary actions.

What are fundamental diseases?

The fundamental mechanisms of many common diseases are often only fully understood by studying more extreme diseases with similar characteristics. Thankfully, these extreme diseases are usually quite rare.

That’s why we are calling this group of conditions ‘fundamental diseases’: because they are fundamental to understanding how many common diseases develop and how they might be prevented or treated. We believe that by investing in research into these fundamental diseases, we will unlock new insights and discover potential treatments for chronic conditions from which so many people suffer.

‘What we learn from rare disorders often has profound consequences for our understanding of more common conditions.’

Are Diseases Caused by a Lack of Exercise?

Your laid­back lifestyle is bad for your health. If you're working on the computer, watching television or just sitting around too much, you can be at risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Research reported in the "Journal of the American Heart Association" states that television viewing time is associated with increased risk of all­cause and CVD mortality. Nature designed the human body to move, and a sedentary lifestyle could be taking its toll on your health.

High Blood Pressure

There is a well established link between salt, high blood pressure and heart disease. A diet high in sodium is likely to increase your blood pressure and your risk for other cardiovascular disease. High blood pressure increases your risk for heart attack, stroke and other medical conditions. The American Heart Association published a 2011 report studying the relationship between physical activity and your blood pressure's response to salt intake. The findings show the more physically active you are, the less your blood pressure reacts to salt in your diet.

Metabolic Syndrome

A lack of exercise and subsequent weight gain increase your risk for diseases brought about by obesity, like metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Metabolic syndrome describes a combination of one or more unhealthy factors, like fat around your waistline, high blood pressure, unhealthy blood cholesterol levels and high blood sugar. Physical activity burns excess calories, reduces blood sugar and decreases your risk for developing metabolic syndrome.

Bone and Muscle Health

Regular physical activity strengthens your bones and muscles, reducing your risk for injury and arthritis. Strong muscles help you perform your daily tasks well and increase your endurance. Strength training helps prevent injury due to falls by increasing balance and stability. Strong bones are less susceptible to fracture. Develop a strong exercise pattern throughout your lifetime to stay active and prevent hip fracture in your senior years.


The American Cancer Society states that 1/3 of all cancer deaths each year in the United States are due to unhealthy diet and lack of exercise. Exercise reduces colon cancer by accelerating food through your digestive system, reducing the time your organs are exposed to toxins. Vigorous exercise reduces exposure of breast tissue to circulating estrogen, decreasing your risk for breast cancer. Researchers associate certain types of cancers, like pancreatic and colon cancers, with adult onset of diabetes, effectively reduced by regular exercise.

Quantity of Exercise

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans suggests healthy adults get 2.5 hours of moderate aerobic exercise each week, along with muscle strengthening workouts on two or more days. These guidelines even allow for the exercise to be broken into 10­minute segments, squeezed into your busy work day. For example, you could go for a 10­minute walk, three times a day and five days a week to reduce your risk for developing moderate or serious diseases.

List of the Top 5 Heart Diseases


Heart disease is the number one killer in America and a major cause of disability. It often exists for a long time without any symptoms. The good news is that heart disease can be avoided or successfully managed with lifestyle changes such as eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise. Understanding the different types of heart disease and knowing if you have risk factors can help you to prevent being diagnosed with it.

Coronary Artery Disease

Arteriosclerosis, narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, is the most common cause of heart disease, according to the National Institutes of Health. This condition involves the buildup of plaque on the artery walls. As the arteries narrow, less blood gets to the heart. When the heart is starved for blood and oxygen, the cells in your heart muscle can die. Arteriosclerosis increases your risk for heart attack and stroke.


Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. If your arteries have narrowed then your heart muscle must work harder to push the same volume of blood through your body. This creates greater force against the artery walls. This increase in force is measured by taking your blood pressure. When the top number of your blood pressure reaches 140 mmHg or higher and/or your bottom number reaches 90 mmHg or higher you may be diagnosed with high blood pressure. High blood pressure increases your risk of heart attack and stroke.


The term arrhythmia is used whenever your heartbeat becomes abnormal. Your heart rate or pulse can become too fast, too slow or there can be skipped beats. The American Heart Association states that irregular heart rhythms are very common. They can be mild and cause no problems or they can contribute to heart disease and be fatal. Arrhythmia can lead to heart attacks, strokes or sudden cardiac arrest.

Heart Attack

According to the Centers for Disease Control, coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart attacks. When your heart does not receive the blood and oxygen it needs, cells within the heart can become damaged or die. The result is a heart attack. You need treatment right away. The sooner you receive care the better your chances of survival and minimizing damage.


A stroke occurs when the arteries that supply the brain with blood and oxygen become blocked. As this happens, cells in the brain begin to die. According to the National Stroke Association “Stroke is the third leading cause of death in America and a leading cause of adult disability.” The symptoms you are left with depend on how much damage occurs and what sections of the brain were affected.

Chrysotile and Lung Cancer

Asbestos is a naturally occurring fibrous mineral whose durability and heat resistance have made it useful for various industrial applications since the late 1800s. Due to the minute size of its fibers, asbestos is easily inhaled. The first reports of asbestos­related lung disease emerged in 1890, and the first deaths due to asbestos exposure were reported in 1907. Asbestos­related lung diseases include a number of disorders, of which pulmonary asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are the most important. Asbestos exists in 2 principal forms ­­ chrysotile and amphibole ­­ which are distinguished by the shape, size and chemical properties of their fibers. Although controversy has surrounded the relative contributions of these 2 fiber types to human disease, both have been convincingly linked to lung cancer.

Is Chrysotile Less Dangerous?

In February 2013, with support from the International Chrysotile Association, researchers from 5 different countries published a review of chrysotile’s biological properties in “Critical Reviews in Toxicology.” In their exhaustive, 30­page analysis, these scientists contended that chrysotile, which is a shorter, more serpentine fiber than amphibole, is not associated with significant human health risks when its use is controlled. Other studies also suggest that chrysotile’s shorter fiber length confers a lower risk for lung cancer. However, chrysotile occurs in varying lengths in nature and is frequently contaminated with amphibole fibers in geological formations. Thus, any differences in risk derived from laboratory observations or “cherry­picked” studies may not translate into real world settings. The weight of scientific evidence suggests that exposure to any form of asbestos increases your risk for lung cancer. Even the authors of the 2013 review conceded that “heavy and prolonged exposure to chrysotile can produce lung cancer.”

Lung Cancer Type

According to a 2007 review in “American Family Physician,” asbestos exposure heightens your risk for both small cell and non­small cell lung cancers, the two main categories of lung cancer. Lung cancers caused by asbestos exposure are indistinguishable from those caused by tobacco smoke and are generally approached in the same fashion as tumors related to smoking. Malignant mesothelioma, a rare form of cancer that develops in the outer lining of your lungs or along the inner wall of your abdominal cavity, is most commonly seen in people who have been exposed to amphibole asbestos. However, a study published in the June 2001 issue of the “American Journal of Epidemiology” demonstrated that workers who are exposed to amphibole­free chrysotile fibers are also at risk, albeit lower, for malignant mesothelioma.

Smoking Enhances Risk

Smoking and asbestos exposure are independent risk factors for lung cancer, meaning exposure to only one of these agents is sufficient to increase your chances for developing lung cancer. When smoking and asbestos exposure are combined, your risk for developing lung cancer is even greater. This relationship applies to both amphibole and chrysotile fibers. Furthermore, your risk for developing lung cancer increases in proportion to the amount you smoke and the intensity of your asbestos exposure. In heavy smokers who have been exposed to high levels of asbestos, the risk for lung cancer could be 80 times higher than it is for someone who has never been exposed to asbestos or tobacco smoke.


Although asbestos use has been strictly regulated in the U.S. since the 1970s, asbestos­related lung diseases can take decades to develop. Therefore, people who worked in settings where they were exposed to asbestos many years ago could still be presenting to their doctors with asbestos­related health problems. Furthermore, asbestos is still present in many older homes and workplaces, and people can get exposed during remodeling or catastrophes, such as the collapse of the World Trade Center in 2001. For people who have been exposed to asbestos at very low levels or for very brief periods, the health risks are similarly low. However, if you have experienced heavy or prolonged exposure to asbestos, ask your physician if you should be screened for asbestos­related diseases. Periodic chest x­ray, chest CT and tests to measure lung function are typically recommended for individuals with a significant history of asbestos exposure. If you have been exposed to asbestos ­­ whether chrysotile or amphibole ­­ and you are a smoker, it is essential that you stop smoking. Your doctor can assist you with smoking cessation and determine whether additional evaluation is warranted.

Muscle Tightness & Hydration

Muscle tightness is a common issue among adults — both those who exercise regularly and those who don't. Hydrating properly can help prevent muscle tightness and is essential for proper bodily functions. Depending on the cause of the muscle tightness, there are several ways to prevent or lessen its severity. If your symptoms persist or are severe, however, consult a doctor for an assessment.

Causes of Muscle Tightness

Prolonged inactivity can cause some muscles to tighten and restrict certain movements. For example, people who work at a desk job and are in a seated position all day can develop muscle imbalances resulting in tight muscles, according to the American Council on Exercise. During exercise, muscles can tighten due to cramps. Cramps can be very painful and are the result of factors such as dehydration, muscle fatigue, low potassium and low sodium. Muscles also tighten following a workout. This is usually described as delayed onset muscle soreness. The tightness and soreness felt after exercise is the result of small ruptures within the muscle.

Benefits of Hydration

Keeping your body hydrated is not only important for your muscles, but it’s essential for your vital organs. Approximately 60 percent of your body’s weight is water, according to MayoClinic.com. Keeping yourself hydrated helps to flush out toxins, carry nutrients to your body’s cells and provide a moist, balanced environment for the nose, throat and ear tissues. Dehydration can occur when a person does not have enough water in her body in order to carry out normal functions.

Preventing Tight Muscles

Many factors beyond hydration can prevent tight muscles. Starting or continuing an exercise program can help with sore muscles that occur because of long periods of inactivity. Engaging in proper exercise intensity for your fitness level is essential, along with static stretching after the cool­down period of your routine. (Always consult a doctor, though, before starting any exercise regimen.) The American Council on Exercise recommends static stretching as a remedy for tight muscles. In addition, fueling your body with good nutrition can also help to prevent muscle tightness. Steve Hoyles, a fitness professional and owner of Hoyles Fitness, recommends taking fish oil and eating quality protein and lots of vegetables to give your muscles the nutrients it needs.


How much water you need to stay hydrated can depend on the person and the climate they live in. A healthy adult male who lives in a temperate climate should consume approximately 3 liters a day (2.2 liters for females). This consumption of fluid does not need to be only water. You can replenish the water your body loses by consuming beverages that contain water, such as juice and milk, or even foods that contain water, like vegetables and fruits.

Causes of Brittle Bone Disease

Brittle bone disease is a genetic disorder, medically termed osteogenesis imperfecta, that has several types ranging from mild to severe. The National Institute of Arthritis Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases explains that this disease is characterized by bones breaking easily with minimal cause. An estimated one in 20,000 individuals experiences brittle bone disease with equal frequency occurring across gender and race, the National Human Genome Research Institute notes. There is no cure for osteogenesis imperfecta and existing treatments aim to decrease the amount of incidence of bone fractures as well as facilitate optimal quality of life and health.

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